Cultivar

The various types of olives and olive plants are defined by the term "cultivar" (contraption of CULTIvated VARiety) , and it's frequently tied to the geography of the region of that particular cultivar. There's a vast multitude of cultivars in the olive oil panorama, each with its own characteristics and usage (edible olives, olives for oil, olives for both usages):
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Arbequina

  • ORIGIN:
  • Spain (ES)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • It is the most important variety in Catalonia, where it occupies more than 55,000 ha. It is widely present in Aragon, and most recently in Andalusia. Outside Spain it is mainly found in Argentina.
  • USAGE:
  • Oil
  • FEATURES:
  • Considered a hardy variety for its resistance to the cold and tolerance to salinity. It is known for its consistently high production. The oil quality is excellent, mainly due to the good organoleptic characteristics, although it has low stability. The oil content is high.
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Biancolilla

  • ORIGIN:
  • Italy (IT)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • Central-eastern Sicily
  • USAGE:
  • Oil
  • FEATURES:
  • Cultivars that find an ideal growing environment high in the hills and able to provide good production in soils with limited water availability. Production is high and alternating; the oil yield is low and the latter is characterised by the particular light colour.
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Bosana

  • ORIGIN:
  • Italy (IT)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • Sardinia
  • USAGE:
  • Oil
  • FEATURES:
  • Cultivars are productive and adapt easily. Ripening is late and scalar. In some years, production can also be used as black table olives. The oil yield is high.
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Canino

  • ORIGIN:
  • Italy (IT)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • Lazio
  • USAGE:
  • Oil
  • FEATURES:
  • Hardy plant that adapts easily and has remarkable reproductive activity. Production is high and alternating. The oil content is average.
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Carolea

  • ORIGIN:
  • Italy (IT)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • Calabria
  • USAGE:
  • Dual purpose
  • FEATURES:
  • Plant adapts easily and cultivation reaches up to 800 metres in altitude. Production is high and consistent. Fruit ripening is scalar. The oil content is average. The production is used for green or black table olives, as well as for extracting oil.
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Cellina Nardò

  • ORIGIN:
  • Italy (IT)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • Apulia
  • USAGE:
  • Oil
  • FEATURES:
  • Vigorous and hardy with slow vegetative growth. Production is high and consistent. The oil content is low. Oil extraction is difficult when the fruit is not fully ripe.
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Coratina

  • ORIGIN:
  • Italy (IT)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • Apulia
  • USAGE:
  • Oil
  • FEATURES:
  • Plant adapts easily to different olive growing environments. It is been reported to be cold tolerant. Production is high and consistent. In some years, the fruit is also suitable to prepare green olives in brine. The oil yield is high; it is very rich in polyphenols.
OPEN

Cornicabra

  • ORIGIN:
  • Spain (ES)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • It is the second largest Spanish variety in terms of acreage. Currently occupies 270,000 ha in the provinces of Ciudad Real, Toledo, Madrid, Badajoz and C†ceres.
  • USAGE:
  • Oil
  • FEATURES:
  • Variety of high rhizogenic capacity and high adaptation to poor soils and arid and cold zones. It is valued for its high oil yield and its quality, excellent organoleptic characteristics and high stability. The pulp quality is such that it is also used for preserving.
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Dolce Agogia

  • ORIGIN:
  • Italy (IT)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • Umbria
  • USAGE:
  • Oil
  • FEATURES:
  • Plant that adapts to different climatic and soil conditions. Production is average and alternating. The oil content is average. The fruit is also used for dried black olives.
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Dritta

  • ORIGIN:
  • Italy (IT)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • Abruzzo
  • USAGE:
  • Oil
  • FEATURES:
  • Hardy plant, popular for its high and constant production. The oil content is average.
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Frantoio

  • ORIGIN:
  • Italy (IT)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • Central Italy and many olive-growing countries
  • USAGE:
  • Oil
  • FEATURES:
  • Gentle variety with high and constant production, popular for its adaptability. The oil content is average. In Tuscany, this cultivar is valued for its particularly fruity oil production that is stable over time.
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Gentile

  • ORIGIN:
  • Italy (IT)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • Central Italy and many olive-growing countries
  • USAGE:
  • Oil
  • FEATURES:
  • Gentle variety with high and constant production, popular for its adaptability. The oil content is average. In Tuscany, this cultivar is valued for its particularly fruity oil production that is stable over time.
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Hojiblanca

  • ORIGIN:
  • DIFFUSION:
  • It is the third largest Spanish variety in relation to cultivated area. It currently covers more than 200,000 hectares in the provinces of Cordoba, Malaga, Seville and Granada
  • USAGE:
  • Dual purpose
  • FEATURES:
  • Variety with a high rhizogenic capacity resistant to calcareous soils. It is considered hardy for its resistance to drought and tolerance to winter cold. The oil content is low, although the product is highly valued for its quality, even if it is low.
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Kalamon

  • ORIGIN:
  • Greece (GR)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • Messinia, Laconia, Lamia. Covering about 15-20% of the country's surface.
  • USAGE:
  • Dual purpose
  • FEATURES:
  • Variety of average hardiness. Rhizogenesis is average, as well as its entry into production. The oil yield is average, the product appears to be of excellent quality.
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Koroneiki

  • ORIGIN:
  • Greece (GR)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • Peloponnese, Zakynthos, Crete, Samos. Covering about 50-60% of the surface area of the country
  • USAGE:
  • Oil
  • FEATURES:
  • Represents the main cultivar of oil in Greece. Average rhizogenic capacity. Production is high and consistent. The oil content in the fruit is high and the product is highly valued. The oleic acid content is very high, as is the stability of the oil.
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Leccino

  • ORIGIN:
  • Italy (IT)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • Tuscany, Umbria and other olive-growing areas
  • USAGE:
  • Oil
  • FEATURES:
  • Vigorous plant that adapts easily to different olive growing environments Production is high and consistent. The oil content is low.
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Mastoidis

  • ORIGIN:
  • Greece (GR)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • Covering 15-20% of the surface area of the country Its cultivation is from the island of Corfu to Attica, whilst currently its cultivation is more developed in Peloponnese and the island of Crete.
  • USAGE:
  • Dual purpose
  • FEATURES:
  • Hardy variety can be grown up to 1000 m above sea level. It is resistant to cold and moderately tolerant to dry climates. Production is average and alternating. The oil yield is high.
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Megaritiki

  • ORIGIN:
  • Greece (GR)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • Attica, Boeotia and the Peloponnese
  • USAGE:
  • Dual applications
  • FEATURES:
  • Gentle variety considered hardy and has average rhizogenic capacity. It is resistant to dry climates and moderately tolerant to the cold. Its fruit is used for green and black table olives and for oil extraction with average-high yield. The oil produced is of good quality.
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Moraiolo

  • ORIGIN:
  • Italy (IT)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • Central Italy
  • USAGE:
  • Oil
  • FEATURES:
  • Plant is very hardy and prefers hilly areas. Production is high and consistent. The oil content is low and is highly valued for its characteristic "fruity" flavour and for its squalene and polyphenol content.
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Nocellara del Belice

  • ORIGIN:
  • Italy (IT)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • Western Sicily
  • USAGE:
  • Table
  • FEATURES:
  • Plant has modest growth and adapts easily to different environmental conditions. Production is high and consistent. The high consistency of the pulp makes the fruit suitable for green olives in brine.
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Ogliarola Barese
o Cima di Bitonto

  • ORIGIN:
  • Italy (IT)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • Apulia
  • USAGE:
  • Oil
  • FEATURES:
  • Hardy plant with rapid growth, sensitive to frost and sea winds. Production is average and alternating. Oil yield from the press is high. The oil is highly valued and characterises the Bitonto production zone.
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Ogliarola Garganica

  • ORIGIN:
  • Italy (IT)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • Apulia
  • USAGE:
  • Oil
  • FEATURES:
  • Hardy plant with rapid growth, sensitive to frost and sea winds. Production is average and alternating. Oil yield from the press is high. The oil is highly valued and characterises the Bitonto production zone.
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Ogliarola Salentina

  • ORIGIN:
  • Italy (IT)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • Apulia
  • USAGE:
  • Oil
  • FEATURES:
  • Very hardy plant of considerable size. Production is high and alternating.
OPEN

Ottobratica

  • ORIGIN:
  • Italy (IT)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • Calabria
  • USAGE:
  • Oil
  • FEATURES:
  • Very hardy plant of considerable size. Production is high and alternating.
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Picual

  • ORIGIN:
  • Spain (ES)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • It is the most important variety in Spain. It currently occupies more than 700,000 ha, particularly in the provinces of JaÇn (97%), Cordova (38%) and Granada (40%). It is the basis of new plantations.
  • USAGE:
  • Oil
  • FEATURES:
  • Hardy variety for its adaptation to different climate conditions and soil; in particular, it is considered tolerant to the cold. It is, however, sensitive to drought and calcareous soils. It is highly valued for its high and constant production, high oil yield and ease of cultivation. The oil is of average quality, even with a high stability index, which implies great resistance to rancidity, also possesses a high percentage of oleic acid.
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Picudo

  • ORIGIN:
  • Spain (ES)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • It is one of the main Spanish varieties, even though it has not reached expansion in any zone. It occupies around 60,000 hectares in the provinces of Cordova, Granada, Malaga and Jaen.
  • USAGE:
  • Oil
  • FEATURES:
  • Vigorous variety that is considered hardy as a result of its high tolerance to calcareous soils and excess moisture in the ground. It is cold tolerant. Highly valued variety as a result of its oil yield and excellent organoleptic characteristics which are very precious in the Baena designation of origin. The oil is characterised by a high linoleic acid content, is slightly bitter and has low stability.
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Pisciottana

  • ORIGIN:
  • Italy (IT)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • Campania
  • USAGE:
  • Oil
  • FEATURES:
  • Very productive cultivar that adapts easily to coastal areas. Production is high and alternating, oil content is high.
OPEN

Pizzacarogna

  • ORIGIN:
  • Italy (IT)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • Southern Sardinia
  • USAGE:
  • Dual purpose
  • FEATURES:
  • Plant does not adapt easily to different environments other than its area of origin. Production is high and alternating. The fruit ripens earlier and is suitable for the production of both oil and green olives in brine. The oil yield is low.
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Raia

  • ORIGIN:
  • Italy (IT)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • Umbria
  • USAGE:
  • Oil
  • FEATURES:
  • Plant that adapts to different climatic and soil conditions. Production is average and alternating. The oil content is average. The fruit is also used for dried black olives.
OPEN

Rosciola

  • ORIGIN:
  • Italy (IT)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • USAGE:
  • Oil
  • FEATURES:
  • Small, hardy plant that adapts easily to different environments in the olive growing areas in central Italy. Production is high and consistent. The oil content is average.
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Taggiasca

  • ORIGIN:
  • Italy (IT)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • Liguria
  • USAGE:
  • Oil
  • FEATURES:
  • Plant of considerable size, which solely represents the olive growing in the province of Imperia. It adapts well both in areas closest to the sea and on hills. The fruit, which ripens late, has a high oil yield.
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Valanolia

  • ORIGIN:
  • Greece (GR)
  • DIFFUSION:
  • Lesbos, Chios, Skyros,. Covers 70% of the olive-growing area of the island of Mytilene.
  • USAGE:
  • For oil
  • FEATURES:
  • Hardy variety and average rhizogenic capacity. It has average resistance to the cold and drought. Production is average and alternating. The fruit is intended for extraction. The oil content is average and the product is of excellent quality.