Olive and oil from legend to reality

In different civilisations, amongst different populations, quotes on the olive tree and olive oil are numerous

The dove and Noah the poet Homer the goddess Athena
As far back as 1000 B.C. the citation
taken from the Bible of the dove that returns to Noah's ark with a fresh
olive branch in its beak, signifying
renewed peace between God and mankind.
Numerous episodes in the Iliad and in the Odyssey written by Homer have
had the olive tree and oil as their themes: Ulysses' bed, obtained from a large olive tree, which after removing foliage, gave
shape to a bed, without being uprooted;
Ulysses built a house around it.
Ulysses was sprinkled and washed with oil...
Cecrops, a demigod, on founding the city of Athens, requested that his city be protected by the gods; so a competition was started, under the auspices of Zeus, between Poseidon, god of the sea and Athena, god of wisdom; Poseidon, with his trident, struck rock, made salt water flow and a horse, as a sign of domination over the seas. Athena simply created the olive tree, that for millennia has given mankind a "precious juice" for food, health care, beauty and body massage, and a source of light. Athena had victory in the palm of her hand, and became the protector of the city thus called Athens.
  the cyclops
  The Cyclops had trunks of wood and clubs made from the olive tree; even the trunk that was as big as a ship's mast, which was hurled into the eye of the Cyclops was made of olive wood.
the Panathenaic games the Olympics the customs of the Greeks
In honour of Athena, the Athenians built the Parthenon which held the Panathenaic games.
The winning athletes at the Panathenaic games were rewarded with money, gold medals and olive oil contained in ornate jars, obtained from the sacred Athenians' olive trees.
Even in the Olympic games, which were
held in honour of Zeus at Olympia, athletes received jars of oil; the athletes' bodies were also rubbed and massaged
with olive oil. The head of the winner
was adorned with a crown of olive leaves.
Ordinary Greek people used to anoint
the body and hair with olive oil with added fragrances and essences
derived from herbs and flowers.
The playboys in that period always carried
a container of perfumed oil hanging from their wrist or belt.
Olive oil was also used in various medicinal preparations.
Homer tells us that even the dead were laid on a bed of olive leaves
and sprinkled with olive oil.
Their tombs were decorated with
crowns and small olive branches.
  Oil and the ancient Gods The Ancient Egyptians
  Oil throughout antiquity and in many cultures has had both a purifying, and at the same time protective function, designed to prevent the divinity present from abandoning the simulacrum. The Egyptians for example, used oil to anoint the bodies and the heads of the deceased that were to be mummified; during these functions, only those who had hair, face and feet rubbed with oil could approach the idols, who in turn were purified with balms.
Ramses III donated the proceeds of a 2750 hectare area to the Temples
The sacred scriptures Oil in Christian culture  
The Bible mentions the anointing of kings,
princes, altars and liturgical objects.
Myrrh a gift offered by the Magi to Jesus, referred to as "the anointing of the Lord", it was nothing other than oil enriched with spices.
In the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem a large stone is preserved (the anointing stone) on which Christ's body was covered with balm.
On this stone "oil lamps" burn,
each representing a religious confession. Olive branches were used to acclaim the Lord on his entry into Jerusalem, and the same are blessed and exchanged on Palm Sunday, in a sign of peace.
Oil is still used for the
sacraments: Catechumenate for baptisms,
chrism for confirmation, the anointing of the gravely ill,
and there is also one for anointment for priestly ordination. An oil lamp lit on an altar indicates the presence of the Lord